Sorry. But now there will be a strange story on a not entirely delicate topic. But I think there are not too many pretentious characters among the readers suffering from hypocrisy. Therefore, I take the risk.
Rather, it is a story of some gender discrimination. But in general, many sociologists believe that this topic is a certain marker for the development of society. Pretty bright.
During my childhood, free public toilets existed — albeit in some short supply. And I remember how at train stations, in theaters, circuses, museums and in the mass of places I visited, terrible queues in the ladies' rooms.
And I traveled a lot with my parents during my childhood. Alma-Ata and Volgograd, Moscow and Minsk, Leningrad and Arkhangelsk, Odessa and Krasnodar, Kiev and Kolomyia, Brest and Bryansk, Astrakhan and Ivanovo, Kostroma and Smolensk - the picture is the same everywhere. Although, as a representative of a different sex, these lines did not directly concern me. But expect moms, sisters, classmates, girlfriends happened preizryadno. I remember.
In my memory, social needs have become paid. Become cleaner and less suffocating. At train stations, the situation with the queues more or less straightened. But museums and theaters remained in the same right - you can’t feel sorry for the ladies.
I understand what's the matter - a different technology. But somehow it is still not clear. Is it really impossible to come up with something? After all, how many years have passed!
And the most interesting thing is that after I became interested in this issue, I had a chance to understand that this problem is no longer years - it is thousands of years old. But you have to tell from afar. And then accused of superficiality.
The depth of the ages and other mysteriousness
Probably the first people leading a nomadic lifestyle, especially cared about the device latrines. The closer to nature, the simpler - where the need has found, there is happiness.
But here the first communities, more or less stationary settled in one place, required some sanitary orderliness - at least in order to reduce the visibility of the settlement for the enemy. Yes, and in the epidemiological profile is good - fewer epidemics. Although not scientifically justified, of course. But it was an empirical time to establish the damage to the habitat in the middle of a garbage dump. So it was then that they began to try to somehow cultivate this matter.
Toilets are funniest places. Someone used pit constructions (they are still scattered around the world today), and someone got used to immediately bury all the dirt on them - among some sects of the ancient Jews (the Essenes, for example, belonged to Yeshua Ha-Notsri ben Pandira, in the world more like Issa or Jesus Christ) there were always special spatulas with them for this work. It is by their presence that archaeologists establish their religious affiliation.
But some nations went further. The excavations in India are known for latrines that use running water to remove sewage. And these devices for several millennia.
In ancient Egypt, Israel, Mesopotamia, Sumer, Carthage, there were advanced systems for collecting and draining rainwater and sewage, which worked very efficiently. On Crete, in palaces, the first attempts at creating a fecal sewage system are known.
Archaeologists have found even the toilet seats, very much like the modern ones, in Egypt and Sumer. And in Scotland, public toilets are known, 5,000 years old, where sewage through special clay drains was diverted to a remote place. Public, they are very conditional - just built in large houses, where there lived several families, very numerous. So you can consider them and the first intra. Just flat communal.
In ancient Greece, with which every respectable and moderately educated citizen of the world is simply obliged to keep a record of the culture of society and its individual representatives, sewage from palaces and huts were collected by a single ditch of a standard cross section of about a meter per meter.
But most of all, the ancient descendants of the Etruscans and the Greeks - the Romans - imbued with the assorted theme. In their public latrines, the latrines, there were standardized stone toilet seats, water for washing hands and rinsing personal hygiene products (the Romans did not use paper, but they were completely treated with a natural sponge attached to a stick) and a sewage system with drainage of running water — for these purposes As a rule, used water came from numerous terms.
The big channel (the Big Cloaca - in honor of the underground goddess-purifier) collected all this rubbish and dumped it into the Tiber. The channel itself was so wide that special rangers swam across the boats on it.
The chairs, as a rule, were located around the circumference - a piece worse than King Arthur’s table. The fact is that the Latrins were used as clubs for the interests and venue of negotiations and press conferences. It's just that the ancients somehow looked at such questions differently.
And here's what else. Toilets until that time were not divided into male and female. Terms are another thing. Ladies and gentlemen washed separately. Just when the terms were still places for sports - each floor has its own appearance. Men were also offered rooms for dating - the baths of the Romans are more like a combine of services, and not a utilitarian hygienic establishment. Ladies of boxing and lupinarium (brothel) were not relied. They exercise in the air and light aerobics. So it is better separately.
That need but to celebrate together. This state of affairs did not seem reprehensible - which is natural, you yourself understand.
The beginning of strife was laid by light industry. Its textile segment.
Just for washing, bleaching linen and in the cloth business, I used standing urine rich in ammonia. She, of course, must be mined somewhere.
Preferably not contaminated. And the Romans thought to install on busy streets and backyards of apartment buildings - insul - ceramic pots of orphan volume - outdated peony, replacing the ancient cooper container - barrels. Only now these piths were called fullons - as laundresses and wokmen of that time.
Fullons were supposed to go for a small need to everyone. It is clear that it is easier to do it for men. The women of Rome didn’t hang around the streets for no reason - their business was their home and their family, and not social life. So the installation of such urinals was not a measure to alleviate the conditions of habitability of the city, but a clear reason for the development of the services sector and the textile industry. But due to many coincidences, she became the first factor in sexual discrimination in the toilet theme of humanity.
If anything, then Vespasian imposed a tax just on the fullons, not the latrins. And the taxpayers and owners of laundries paid that tax. Well, descendants left the expression "Money does not smell" and the circus Colosseum, partially built on the money.
By the way, sidushki in latrines made of natural stone were cold. But the rich had a special slave - that bare skinned boy was warming cool marble for his master or mistress.
This task, at times, was facilitated by the fact that some of them had their own, individually fixed seat in public asylum - something like a much later table in restaurants or a box in a theater provided by annual subscription.
Further in the Medieval era it was somehow not up to the excesses and the infrastructure - Rome fell.
We went more by need for pits or pig toilets — people's waste was mixed with livestock waste — and there all was fertilizer. The device is the simplest - a pit and a pair of poles for fencing and seating amenities.
The noble ones used night vases or dressing rooms - it was believed that the smell of urine repels mole and flea. Therefore, clothes were kept in toilets - even hooks were driven into the walls. Although besides clothes, all smelly herbs were hung on hooks. Just to smell more pleasant. So the restroom from the word "clean" as a piece of clothing.
In the locks, the toilets were a niche with a hole that was taken out of the wall, through which all the excess fell into the moat. So it was not just water that the adversary had to overcome — that water also smelled badly.
Although there were options. The Germans preferred to build, sometimes, separate towers. The rest simply scattered these birdhouses all over the outline of the wall. In general, there were attempts to experiment with castles in the castles, but a lot of people happened to stay in those castles.
So one day a whole king with a retinue and vassals fell into the toilet - the hall for peers was right above the ashenizing pit. The monarch was dragged out and washed, but here a lot of graphs and glorious knights sank. So what with the pits tied.
On the streets for society and there was nothing at all. So those who are simpler, twisted in the corners and bushes. For rich servants could carry a pot. So again on the sex equality.
By the way, in recent times many amateurs are repeating someone else's stupidity about unwashed Europe and pure Russia. Nonsense. The Middle Ages smelled the same everywhere - bad.
There are a lot of decrees governor of the most different. to clear the walls of the trade shops, dwellings of unauthorized construction and ... need. Here, however, on the streets on the head passers sewage did not fall often.
But the reason is not cleanliness, but the width of the building. Europeans simply bridges the streets, but in the Russian state they did it a little wider - otherwise even horses with carts sank in the mud.
It was also not very joyful with sewage - it is enough to recall the fate of Neglinnaya and a dozen other small rivers in Moscow - their fates coincide with the mass of the same rivers in London, Paris and other settlements.
Here in Holland it was easier - there are generally solid channels. He put the booth over the streamlet - he respected the ancient Romans, and did a good deed to the family. If anything, then the wooden canisters we were used to over the pit were brought just from Holland by Peter the Great. And before that, all of Russia and ran to the pit with poles. Partitions, of course, did not build. So again, almost always together.
In the era of the Enlightenment, the streets also smelled not of roses - they ran around the same bushes for want, they simply began to cut the bushes neatly. But in ladies' dresses it is difficult to do. And specially for the ladies, they invented a bastard (or bastard) - a special duck, in form and decor resembling a gravy boat. By the way, this is exactly what the tape on the hat hats is called - all in honor of one man named Louis, who lived in France from 1632 to 1704 without a break for lethargy.
Louis Burdalou was known as an eloquent and intelligent man. And by profession, it seemed to be considered a writer and a preacher. His sermons were highly spiritual in content and beautiful in form. But only too long. And not everyone could listen to them completely without a break. What, it seems, is not quite as well as decently - the face of a spiritual all sorts of blockheads-flock admonished.
That's why they came up with a bastard - the lady could, without smudging her skirts, stand peeing. And they did it even during the sermon - this was allowed.
Burdala for the ladies more in special cases dragged the servants. Those that are simpler wore them in sleeves, which worked well as ridicule. So, visiting museums and antiques salons remember! Not all sauceboat that elongated.
Locomotives and cystitis
Gradually morals changed. Fashion Victorians - hypocrites greatly spoiled the frame of morality, if you figure it out, even those. By their standards, ladies with mushushins wash and fix their needs altogether indecently. Man - he is a beast, which can correct education. And the lady is the lofty person and the angel from birth, slightly burdened with hysteria and a penchant for prostitution. She even somehow and need not.
Therefore, the toilets for the ladies in the public zone of the city were out of the question. They do not have to. And ladies are used to. Although they paid for it with health - cystitis and pyelonephritis, watching women was very common. This was noticed by the Victorians themselves, although the death rate at that time was generally terrible on our modern patterns.
Beginning again laid the French. They installed barrels to collect urine at the beginning and end of the street. And again the reason was purely practical. France did not have enough nitrate for gunpowder. And then fought a lot. And saltpeter was mined from the earth soaked with urine.
Later, the need for barrels disappeared, but street urinals have become familiar. And the prefect Rambuto pavastavil across the capital of public toilet cabins on one in the form of columns. Parisians called them that way - columns of Rambutho. Although it was the second name - Vespasian.
In 1851, during the London Industrial Exhibition, the founders and organizers for a long time decided whether to make a public toilet in the Crystal Palace - the main exhibition pavilion. They decided to do it. But not because of common sense, but in the name of demonstrating the achievements of the newest water-washout system: we can do that, not just Wedgwood.
The start was so successful that since then public toilets have become the norm. And they were made the first time for four categories of the population: for men, women, girls and boys. Why separation by age is not clear today. But it was so. Only soon ended.
Railway contributed a lot. There were no toilets on the trains - they were made at stations. Most often at large, where they organized and food. And these toilets were akin to factory size. Nevertheless, we must bear in mind that such stations were filled with trains filled with passengers, which until then had kept their legs crossed for three or four hours. And least of all, these sufferers would like to watch the queues in the back of the loop - the latrine was often called then.
And again, men were managed more quickly - it was easier for them in most cases.
In time, the needies appeared in train cars and even airplanes. But now the queues to the ladies' rooms did not diminish - on the path of progress the female basic structure stood up, denying standing urination - it is very difficult to control the direction. Things reached the point that special techniques appeared that allowed one to learn to control the muscles of the ureter and deflect the flow in the desired direction.
And the pioneers of this undertaking were the feminists of the 1920s. They also came up with this method. They even began to organize studies and seminars. And even found a lot of volunteers. So the joke about "writing standing" is not exactly a joke. Just this is gender equality.
And this problem remains a problem today. Completely empty in everyday life, but very vital during public events, such as concerts or sporting events. For some reason, architects do not design more toilets or "seats", but they dream that ladies will start to write standing up. They even invented a special female urinal that allows you to urinate while standing. Only its construction is so tricky that not everyone immediately understands how to use it. Therefore, they continue to do it in the old, natural way. Here are just queues in intermissions and do not melt.
So again, the French were ahead of the rest. And not only in perfumes and champagne with goose liver. They remembered the patent in 1922 about a funnel-shaped disposable receiver made of thick cardboard.
And they got the hang of releasing it especially for all kinds of public events. The idea picked up Canada, Britain, Finland, the Netherlands, Ireland and Switzerland. The rest is waiting, puzzled. But there is hope that imbued. And here is the question: in which direction will they think? Maybe it's easier, yet put an extra toilet?